Management by objectives as an administrative strategy in Norwegian schools: interpretations and judgements in contrived liberation.
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Original versionNordkvelle, Yngve, & Nyhus, Lene. (2017). Management by objectives as an administrative strategy in Norwegian schools: Interpretations and judgements in contrived liberation. In N. Veggeland (Ed.), Administrative strategies of our time (pp. 220-260). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
This chapter takes a closer look on why the educational system of Norway can be said to be both centralized and decentralized. In broad lines the chapter supports Margaret Archer's theory that no nation state will give away power to any sector, such as education and will keep a strict control, even if many decisions are left to lower administrative levels. The chapter analyses the historical background of "management by objective" and suggests that two different versions evolved, one European and one from the US. The latter is now by far the most powerful. Accordingly, "objectives" are understood as "behavior", which can be measured and tested. "Accountability" and teaching to the test are now phenomena that dominate the discourses in Norwegian educational debates. The PISA-results contributed to this process, making the debate much more exposed to globalization processes.