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dc.contributor.authorMilner, Jos M.
dc.contributor.authorvan Beest, Floris M.
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Karoline T.
dc.contributor.authorBrook, Ryan K.
dc.contributor.authorStoraas, Torstein
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-23T13:41:12Z
dc.date.available2015-02-23T13:41:12Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationMilner, J. M., van Beest, F., Schmidt, K. T., Brook, R. K., & Storaas, T. (2014). To feed or not to feed? Evidence of the intended and unintended effects of feeding wild ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Management, 78(8), 1322-1334. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.798nb_NO
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11250/277202
dc.description.abstractUngulate populations are important natural resources, associated with both costs and benefits. Conflicts have arisen between stakeholders who benefit from high ungulate numbers and those faced with the costs. Supplementary or diversionary feeding may potentially mitigate conflicts while maintaining harvest yields but can have conservation implications. We quantified the empirical evidence for whether the intended effects, and hence management goals, of feeding are met. We also examined whether any potential unintended consequences of feeding occur and under what conditions. We found clear evidence that supplementary feeding enhanced reproduction and population growth under certain conditions. By contrast, we found limited evidence of the effectiveness of diversionary feeding to protect crops, forestry, and natural habitats, with positive effects often undermined by increases in ungulate density. However, the use of diversionary feeding to reduce traffic collisions seems promising but requires further investigation. The unintended effects of feeding are typically complex, involving changes to demography, behavior, and vegetation with consequent cascading effects on other trophic levels, as well as exacerbated risks of disease transmission. Increased ungulate density is the primary driver behind these unintended effects, the consequences of which tend to increase with longevity of feeding and affect a range of stakeholders. We urge managers to take seriously the risks as well as the economic and ethical issues before deciding to feed ungulatesnb_NO
dc.language.isoengnb_NO
dc.publisherJournal of Wildlife Managementnb_NO
dc.subjectartificial feedingnb_NO
dc.subjectdeernb_NO
dc.subjectforest damagenb_NO
dc.subjecthabitat impactnb_NO
dc.subjectherbivorenb_NO
dc.subjecthuntingnb_NO
dc.subjectsupplemental feednb_NO
dc.subjectsustainable managementnb_NO
dc.subjectvehicle collisionnb_NO
dc.subjectwildlife diseasenb_NO
dc.titleTo feed or not to feed? Evidence of the intended and unintended effects of feeding wild ungulatesnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.pagenumber1322-1334nb_NO
dc.source.volume78nb_NO
dc.source.journalJournal of Wildlife Managementnb_NO
dc.source.issue8nb_NO
dc.identifier.doihttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jwmg.798/abstract
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/jwmg.798


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