Integrative “omic” analysis reveals distinctive cold responses in leaves and roots of strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa ‘Korona’
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Original versionKoehler G, Rohloff J, Wilson RC, Kopka J, Erban A, Winge P, Bones AM, Davik J, Alsheikh MK and Randall SK (2015) Integrative “omic” analysis reveals distinctive cold responses in leaves and roots of strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa ‘Korona’. Front. Plant Sci. 6:826. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00826
To assess underlying metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms during cold exposure of strawberry, integrative “omic” approaches were applied to Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Korona.’ Both root and leaf tissues were examined for responses to the cold acclimation processes. Levels of metabolites, proteins, and transcripts in tissues from plants grown at 18°C were compared to those following 1–10 days of cold (2°C) exposure. When leaves and roots were subjected to GC/TOF-MS-based metabolite profiling, about 160 compounds comprising mostly structurally annotated primary and secondary metabolites, were found. Overall, ‘Korona’ showed a modest increase of protective metabolites such as amino acids (aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine, and valine), pentoses, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated hexoses, and distinct compounds of the raffinose pathway (galactinol and raffinose). Distinctive responses were observed in roots and leaves. By 2DE proteomics a total of 845 spots were observed in leaves; 4.6% changed significantly in response to cold. Twenty-one proteins were identified, many of which were associated with general metabolism or photosynthesis. Transcript levels in leaves were determined by microarray, where dozens of cold associated transcripts were quantitatively characterized, and levels of several potential key contributors (e.g., the dehydrin COR47 and GADb) to cold tolerance were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Cold responses are placed within the existing knowledge base of low temperature-induced changes in plants, allowing an evaluation of the uniqueness or generality of Fragaria responses in photosynthetic tissues. Overall, the cold response characteristics of ‘Korona’ are consistent with a moderately cold tolerant plant.
Copyright © 2015 Koehler, Rohloff, Wilson, Kopka, Erban, Winge, Bones, Davik, Alsheikh and Randall. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Stephen K. Randall, Department of Biology, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, 723 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5132, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org