The role of blood volume in cardiac dysfunction and reduced exercise tolerance in patients with diabetes
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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OriginalversjonThe Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2019, 7 (10), 807-816. 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30119-6
Blood volume is an integral component of the cardiovascular system, and fundamental to discerning the pathophysiology of multiple cardiovascular conditions leading to exercise intolerance. Based on a systematic search of controlled studies assessing blood volume, in this Personal View we describe how hypovolaemia is a prevalent characteristic of patients with diabetes, irrespective of sex, age, and physical activity levels. Multiple endocrine and haematological mechanisms contribute to hypovolaemia in diabetes. The regulation of intravascular volumes is altered by sustained hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Chronic activation of endocrine systems controlling fluid homeostasis, such as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and vasopressin axis, has a role in progressive kidney desensitisation and diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, albumin loss from the intravascular compartment reduces the osmotic potential of plasma to retain water. Hypovolaemia also affects the loading conditions and filling of the heart in diabetes. The elucidation of modifiable volumetric traits will plausibly have major health benefits in the diabetes population.
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