Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR/VR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology in Systematic Inter-Professional Crisis Management Training
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The technological transformation has enabled innovative changes in operational processes and services. Immersive technologies, specifically Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) training has been used for many years with excellent results to train e.g. astronauts, pilots, paramedics, and military personnel. Emerging technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), present even greater opportunities when it comes to making our crisis management systems more intelligent, secure, and effective. At present, the crisis management field is dominated by conventional exercise methods, for example when participants gather to discuss or simulate a full-scale scenario (such as table-top exercises). Consequently, exercises that present participants with realistic challenges under time pressure are rare, if they even exist. Other problems identified in earlier research are, for example: inadequate assessment of the effectiveness of training; difficulties in defining a suitable training context or content; providing timely and relevant feedback to participants; and transfer of “lessons learnt” to future incidents. With this study we aim to design an experimental testbed for the purpose of conducting systematic comparisons of various configurations of simulation exercises, using novel tools and procedures (such as AI, VR, AR). The baseline for comparison will be traditional time- and space-dependent (i.e., field) exercises. Measured variables fall into the categories of situational awareness (SA), decision-making, communication, inter- and intra-team dynamics, and leadership. The main dependent variable will be learning outcomes. Our main hypothesis is that using novel tools and technologies to support systematic crisis training and exercises on crisis management will have a positive effect on intermediary processes as well as learning outcomes.