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dc.contributor.authorvan Beeck Calkoen, Suzanne T. S.
dc.contributor.authorKuijper, Dries P. J.
dc.contributor.authorApollonio, Marco
dc.contributor.authorBlondel, Lena
dc.contributor.authorDormann, Carsten F.
dc.contributor.authorStorch, Ilse
dc.contributor.authorHeurich, Marco Dietmar
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Applied Ecology. 2023, 60 (12), 2625-2635.en_US
dc.description.abstractTerrestrial ecosystems are shaped by interacting top-down and bottom-up processes, with the magnitude of top-down control by large carnivores largely depending on environmental productivity. While carnivore-induced numerical effects on ungulate prey populations have been demonstrated in large, relatively undisturbed ecosystems, whether large carnivores can play a similar role in more human-dominated systems is a clear knowledge gap. As humans influence both predator and prey in a variety of ways, the ecological impacts of large carnivores can be largely modified. We quantified the interactive effects of human activities and large carnivore presence on red deer (Cervus elaphus) population density and how their impacts interacted and varied with environmental productivity. Data on red deer density were collected based on a literature survey encompassing 492 study sites across 28 European countries. Variation in density across study sites was analysed using a generalized additive model in which productivity, carnivore presence (grey wolf, European lynx, Brown bear), human activities (hunting, intensity of human land-use activity), site protection status and climatic variables served as predictors. The results showed that a reduction in deer density only occurred when wolf, lynx and bear co-occurred within the same site. In the absence of large carnivores, red deer density varied along a productivity gradient without a clear pattern. Although a linear relationship with productivity in the presence of all three large carnivore species was found, this was not statistically significant. Moreover, hunting by humans had a stronger effect than the presence of all large carnivores in reducing red deer density and red deer density increased with increasing intensity of human land use, with stronger large carnivore effects (all three carnivore species present) at sites with low human land-use activities. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence for the dominant role played by humans (i.e. hunting, land-use activities) relative to large carnivores in reducing red deer density across European human-dominated landscapes. These findings suggest that when we would like large carnivores to exert numeric effects, we should focus on minimizing human impacts to allow the ecological impacts of large carnivores on ecosystem functioning.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectCervus elaphusen_US
dc.subjectenvironmental productivityen_US
dc.subjecthuman land-use activitiesen_US
dc.subjecthunting by humansen_US
dc.subjectlarge carnivoresen_US
dc.subjectnumerical effectsen_US
dc.subjecttop-down controlen_US
dc.titleNumerical top-down effects on red deer (Cervus elaphus) are mainly shaped by humans rather than large carnivores across Europeen_US
dc.title.alternativeNumerical top-down effects on red deer (Cervus elaphus) are mainly shaped by humans rather than large carnivores across Europeen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2023 The Authors.en_US
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Matematikk og Naturvitenskap: 400::Zoologiske og botaniske fag: 480en_US
dc.source.journalJournal of Applied Ecologyen_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal