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dc.contributor.authorSverdrup, Harald Ulrik
dc.contributor.authorSverdrup, Antoniy Elias
dc.identifier.citationSustainable Horizons. (2023) 7. Article 100067en_US
dc.descriptionThis is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.description.abstractThe change in supply, price, extractable resources and recycling with time for titanium was assessed with the WORLD7 model. Demand for titanium is expected to increase in the future, and several future scenarios were investigated. The model is mass balance based and simulates the flow terms past from 1850 to 2023 and the flows in the future from 2024 to 2200. The recoverable mineral resources have been estimated at about 1800 million ton of titanium element after a review of the literature. Only 500 million ton of titanium mineral resources count as high grade, the rest is found in ores with low or very low content. Our findings are that for all scenarios, the WORLD7 model simulations shows that there will be no significant shortages in the short term (before 2050), but in the longer term there will be scarcity issues appearing after 2075 for both metal and oxide supply. If demand increase more than anticipated by market analysts, scarcity may develop decades earlier. The model makes estimates for titanium oxide and titanium metal demand, extraction, supply, recycling, losses and the development of major stocks in society.en_US
dc.publisherElsevier B.V. on behalf of Southern University of Science and Technology.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleAn assessment of the global supply, recycling, stocks in use and market price for titanium using the WORLD7 modelen_US
dc.title.alternativeAn assessment of the global supply, recycling, stocks in use and market price for titanium using the WORLD7 modelen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2023 The Author(s).en_US
dc.source.journalSustainable Horizonsen_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal