Benefits of higher resistance‐training volume are related to ribosome biogenesis
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionJournal of Physiology. 2020, 598 (3), 543-565 10.1113/JP278455
Resistance‐exercise volume is a determinant of training outcomes. However not all individuals respond in a dose‐dependent fashion. In this study, 34 healthy individuals (males n = 16, 23.6 (4.1) years; females n = 18, 22.0 (1.3) years) performed moderate‐ (3 sets per exercise, MOD) and low‐volume (1 set, LOW) resistance training in a contralateral fashion for 12 weeks (2–3 sessions per week). Muscle cross‐sectional area (CSA) and strength were assessed at Weeks 0 and 12, along with biopsy sampling (m. vastus lateralis). Muscle biopsies were also sampled before and 1 h after the fifth session (Week 2). MOD resulted in larger increases in muscle CSA (5.2 (3.8)% versus 3.7 (3.7)%, P < 0.001) and strength (3.4–7.7% difference, all P < 0.05. This coincided with greater reductions in type IIX fibres from Week 0 to Week 12 (MOD, −4.6 percentage points; LOW −3.2 percentage points), greater phosphorylation of S6‐kinase 1 (p85 S6K1Thr412, 19%; p70 S6K1Thr389, 58%) and ribosomal protein S6Ser235/236 (37%), greater rested‐state total RNA (8.8%) and greater exercise‐induced c‐Myc mRNA expression (25%; Week 2, all P < 0.05). Thirteen and sixteen participants, respectively, displayed clear benefits in response to MOD on muscle hypertrophy and strength. Benefits were associated with greater accumulation of total RNA at Week 2 in the MOD leg, with every 1% difference increasing the odds of MOD benefit by 7.0% (P = 0.005) and 9.8% (P = 0.002). In conclusion, MOD led to greater functional and biological adaptations than LOW. Associations between dose‐dependent total RNA accumulation and increases in muscle mass and strength point to ribosome biogenesis as a determinant of dose‐dependent training responses.
© 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.